Why are there no more evil women? – Global questions

Source: World Economic Forum.
  • Opinion Joseph ChamyPortland, USA)
  • Inter Press Service

Women make up half of the world’s population and certainly play a vital role in the development, well-being and progress of mankind. However, women continue to face discrimination, abuse, misogyny degrading insultsand minor roles in almost all major areas of human activity.

Despite being treated, discriminated against, and subjugated, most women do not express anger. If the situation between the two sexes were reversed, men would certainly get angry and would no doubt take the necessary steps to reverse the inequality.

Article 2 The Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted nearly seventy-five years ago, all rights and freedoms apply equally to women and men and prohibit discrimination on the basis of sex.

About 40 years ago, the international community of nations adopted Agreement on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women. ThemRecently in a United Nations report on sustainable development Goal 5 aims to achieve gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls.

Despite these various declarations, international agreements, conventions, platforms for action, and progress achieved in recent decades, women continue to fall behind men in rights, freedoms and equality.

From the beginning of life in some parts of the world, girls are often treated less favorably than boys. In many societies, boys are still given preference over girls. In too many cases, son preference has resulted in birth sex ratios shifting in favor of men due to to pregnancy intervention in pairs.

The natural sex ratio at birth for the human population is about 105 men per 100 women, although this can range from 103 to 107. Currently, at least seven countries, including the two most populous countries in the world, have a skewed sex ratio at birth, reflecting the preference for sons during pregnancy (Fig. one).

Source: United Nations.

In China and India, there is a skewed sex ratio at birth: 113 and 110 males per 100 females, respectively. High sex ratios at birth are also observed in Azerbaijan (113), Vietnam (112), Armenia (111), Pakistan (109) and Albania (109). In contrast, during the period 1970-1975, when couple intervention in pregnancy was not yet widespread, the sex ratio at birth in these seven countries was within the expected normal range.

Also, in some countries, gender imbalance persists throughout women’s lives. For example, in India, Pakistan and China, which together make up almost 40 percent of the world’s population, the sex ratio for the entire population is 108, 106 and 105, respectively. In contrast, the population sex ratio is 100 in Africa and Oceania, about 97 in North America, Latin America and the Caribbean, and 93 in Europe (Fig. 2).

Source: United Nations.

In terms of education, despite progress made over the past few decades, girls still lag behind boys in primary schooling in some countries, especially in Africa, the Middle East and South Asia. For example, 78 girls in Chad and 84 girls in Pakistan for every 100 boys attending primary school.

Among young women aged 15 to 24, approximately one quarter they are not expected to complete primary school. In addition, about two-thirds The illiterate people in the world are women.

In terms of decision-making, women do not have the same level of political representation or participation as men. Estimated worldwide interest women in national parliaments, local governments and leadership positions account for 26%, 36% and 28% respectively. Even in developed countries such as the US, women makeup, put up 27 percent of Congress, 30 percent of state elected leaders, and 31 percent of state legislators.

Women’s labor force participation is also significantly lower than that of men. For example, worldwide between the ages of 25 and 54 62 percent women are in the labor force compared to 93 per cent of men. In addition, most working women, or 58 percentare employed in the informal economy, receive relatively low wages and lack social protection.

Mostly women work in the lowest paid Job. Around the world, women earn about 24 percent fewer than men, with 700 million fewer women than men in employment.

Women perform at least twice as many unpaid caregivers as men, including childcare, housework, and caring for the elderly. Unpaid care and domestic responsibilities are often taken over by women’s paid work.

Increasing men’s participation in household chores and care will contribute to a more equitable distribution of these important household responsibilities. In addition, public childcare services for families with young children will help both women and men balance their work and family responsibilities.

The global comparative measure of the position of women relative to men for regions and countries is gender parity. index. The index takes into account gender differences in four main dimensions: eeconomic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, health and survival, and political opportunity.

Regions with largest gender equality is Western Europe and North America with parity indices of 78 and 76, respectively. On the contrary, regions with lowest gender equality includes South Asia, the Middle East and North Africa with parity indices of 62 and 61, respectively (Fig. 3).

Source: World Economic Forum.

As far as countries are concerned, top five The countries with the highest gender equality are Iceland, Finland, Norway, New Zealand and Sweden with parity indices ranging from 82 to 89. bottom five the countries with the lowest gender equality are Afghanistan, Yemen, Iraq, Pakistan and Syria, with parity indices ranging from 44 to 57.

Source: World Economic Forum.

In addition to the four main dimensions of the gender parity index noted above, other important areas reflecting the subordination of women include misogynysexual harassment, domestic violence, intimate partner violenceand conflict-related sexual abuse.

All over the world it is believed that 27 percent women aged 15 to 49 have been physically or sexually abused by close long-term partners, often negative effects on the health of women and their children.

Besides, civil conflicts in countries like Ethiopia, Myanmar, South Sudan and Syria report alarming reports of sexual abuse against women. More recently, conflict-related sexual violence by Russian strength in Ukraine, which contributed to the resumption Attention the international community to sexual violence faced by women in conflict situations.

Sexual harassment of women is widespread global phenomenon. Most women have experienced this, especially in public places, which are often considered men’s area while the house is considered place for women. reported interest women subjected to some form of sexual harassment in India and Vietnam, for example, account for nearly 80 and 90 percent respectively.

In addition to harassment, women in places like India face risks from cultural and traditional practices, human trafficking, forced labor and domestic slavery. Furthermore, sexual harassment women in the workplace is responsible for driving many retired from their jobs.

Again, if men were to experience the misandry, discrimination, abuse, harassment, and subjugation that women are subjected to, they would be angry, intolerant, and would no doubt turn to government officials, legislatures, courts, businesses, human rights organizations, and even to the streets. demand equality. Women should seriously think about the actions that men will take if the inequality is eliminated.

As women continue to lag behind men in terms of rights, freedoms, and equality, the enigmatic question remains: Why aren’t women angry?

Joseph Chamey Demographic consultant, former Director of the United Nations Population Division and author of numerous publications on population issues, including his recent book, “Birth, death, migration and other important demographic issues“.

© Inter Press Service (2022) — All rights reservedSource: Inter Press Service

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